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Research Papers

Iraq’s massive needs for reconstruction, after more than 35 years of conflict,  cannot be met by current revenues from its considerable hydrocarbon resources alone, and thus it needs to resort to debt to augment funding this reconstruction. However, discussions within...
“The history of international water treaties dates as far back as 2500 BC, when the two Sumerian city-states of Lagash and Umma crafted an agreement ending a water dispute along the Tigris River - often said to be the...
OVERVIEW If much of Europe breathed a sigh of relief following the fall of Berlin in 1945 - and with it, Nazy Germany, much of the Old Continent found itself tittering on the edge of financial bankruptcy. France, like many...
A constitution is the fundamental and basic law, of a country. The constitution determines the fundamental political principles of the government, rules of procedure of that government, rights and obligations of the citizenry and methods to ensure accountability of...
Russia has been seeking a more robust relationship with Iraq since the so-called Arab Spring started in 2011, eager to build on the remnants of what was once a strong Soviet-Iraqi alliance during the Cold War. The Kremlin’s appetite...
After four years of uncertainty over the leadership of the country, the Third Republic is firmly instituted in Versailles on 1875, thus quashing monarchists quarrels and hopes that they would return in favour. Interestingly enough, and against many odds, the...
If France today can proudly claim to a rich democratic heritage, its walk towards such institutional freedom was not an easy one. Like most of its western counterparts, France’s history - and for the purpose of this research paper,...
“There cannot be a firmly established political state unless there is a teaching body with definitely recognized principles. If the child is not taught from infancy that he ought to be a republican or a monarchist, a Catholic or...
Since assuming the seats of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and President of the People’s Republic of China in 2012, the governance of Xi Jinping has been defined by far-reaching projects and initiatives. On the...
For several years now, the Middle East, and particularly Iraq, has been suffering from a dire water crisis, compounded by the decrease in water quantities from rivers flowing from upstream to downstream countries. Iraq has been severely affected by...

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