Ahmed Khudair Hussein, Department of Social Studies, Al Bayan Center for Studies and Planning


The dilemma of environmental pollution is associated with the misuse and depletion of environmental resources in an irregular manner so that they lose balance and increase their risks to the ecosystem in all its forms (air, water, and soil) and even treat environmental resources with unconsciousness or complacency by individuals or some actors that lead to significant environmental pollution, affecting people socially and healthily.

Environmental pollutants in Iraq are increasing depending on political, security, and economic conditions and the associated destruction of infrastructure as a result of wars and their effects, such as the targeting of power plants the economic facility, industrial plants, railways, petroleum sources, and sewage treatment and disposal systems, residential complexes, disruption of water filtering units and weak role of municipal mechanisms in the transport and landfill of waste, All these and other factors have increased the environmental pollution dilemma, and environmental degradation and pollution issues are linked more to urban areas than to other regions, This may be due to urban areas being considered huge consumption areas of environmental resources (foodstuffs, water, energy…) The increase in the population working in the industrial, literary, artistic, political, commercial, administrative, and public services, casts a shadow through waste and in huge quantities.

On this basis, this paper highlights the drivers and causes of environmental pollution, focusing on the dimensions of environmental pollution (air-water-soil) to assess the extent of damage, as well as the social and health cost of environmental pollution, and seeking the best ways and means to cope with environmental pollution damage.

Motivations (causes) of environmental pollution.

Humankind faces various environmental risks and threats affecting other forms of life on Earth, for example, contaminated air, water, or soil in a given environment can threaten the lives of living organisms (humans, animals, plants, and other organisms). It has led (to rapid industrial progress, accompanied by fumes, gases, toxic waste, and vigorous pursuit of population sprawl and migration of villagers to cities) which refers to environmental pollution from (air, water, and soil), and therefore environmental pollution refers to changes in the properties of the environment directly or indirectly damaging organisms or installations or affecting the exercise of human life, It also reflects quantitative and qualitative changes in the components of the living and non-living environment with the inability of ecosystems to absorb it without disrupting their balance.

One of the main causes of environmental pollution in Iraq is the population explosion that has reached (40,220000) million people for 2021, which affected all joints of the environment in terms of increased need for food, energy, housing, and water resources, as well as increased waste, solid and liquid waste, and degradation of natural resources Equivalent to (2.9%) of GDP (44% of total losses) low level of regional planning, industrial and agricultural inflation, failure to follow appropriate methods to deal with sources of pollution, as well as indifference on the part of people in dealing with their environment, which entails a cost of health and quality of life equivalent to (3.7%) of GDP (56% of total losses), Pollution has a detrimental effect on natural resources. Water pollution, in particular surface water pollution, lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation, inadequate household and personal hygiene, and food products (3.5% of GDP), and air pollution in Baghdad, Basra, Babylon, Nineveh, Najaf, Kirkuk, Maysan, Sulaymaniyah, Dohuk and Erbil came at an estimated cost equivalent to 1.5% of GNP.