Ahmed Jlobe Al-Mayahi – PhD student at the University of Tehran / Department of International Relations


This paper looks at the answer to the following question What are ways to improve the behavior of foreign policy actors in the Middle East? The Middle East has a special place in terms of the presence of straits and waterways, as well as energy such as oil and gas. So we see the intervention of regional external powers in it, and this region has also witnessed ethnic and religious conflicts. The emergence of new identity groups in the region has added to its specificity and unofficial actors have played a role in it. Actors in this region are also turning to cooperation and convergence in a chaotic and complex system. This article looks for a way to improve the behavior of regional actors.

1. Chaos Theory: Edward Lidorin observed in 1960 that small differences in a dynamic system such as the atmosphere can have unexpected results. And he raised the topic of the butterfly effect. And that chaos and disorder do not mean irregularity, but rather the existence of random and unexpected aspects of dynamic phenomena. Chaos Theory investigates the behavior of some systems that are very sensitive to their initial state. In this approach, the chaotic process is the product of a dynamic, non-linear system. This theory also looks for a system and provides a way to work and predict at the heart of chaos.

In chaos theory, it is assumed that in different systems, order and chaos complement each other. In light of this, Rosnau is looking into this and believes that the global policy interactions that take place without the intervention of governments have increased further. It is therefore necessary to pay attention to the existence of a new structure. Post-international politics is appropriate for her. The sources of global policy shift also mention five factors:

(Move from the industrial system to beyond industry, the emergence of new issues such as air pollution, the problem of smuggling and terrorism, reducing the ability of governments to provide satisfactory solutions to major issues, increasing the cohesion and success of subsystems and enhancing attractive tendencies, reactions to the consequences of all the mentioned factors on the skills and attitudes of adults in the world)

2. Definition of foreign policy: This saying has meaning in dealing with states with each other, and means foreign policy, the general objectives that guide the activities and relations of the government in the interaction with other governments. It also means the pre-planned work implemented by government decision-makers, which foreign policy can be an initiative of a government or its reaction to the actions of other governments. Accordingly, foreign policy means pursuing the goals of the state in the international environment and with other societies, governments, and states. A country’s foreign policy develops its influence in the international environment, and some consider this issue to be similar to diplomacy, while diplomacy is an instrument of foreign policy.

3. Characteristics of the Middle East: The Middle East includes the West Asia and North Africa region. Middle East actors cooperate with regional actors formally and informally. Major powers such as China and Russia, regional powers such as India, Turkey, and Iran, and weak powers such as Nepal and Laos play a role in this region. The Middle East is dominated by a multipolar system in Bosan’s analysis, all alliance-seeking tendencies have their roots in the region, that is, regional values are simply turning to rapprochement and alliance with the great powers in the cross-border regions with their neighbors. Each actor in the Middle East takes a different approach according to his interests and political and ideological orientations.

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is the most important regional symbol in the Middle East, which includes representatives such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman. In the vicinity of Iraq and Iran, observers or members can enter if the level of relations between the region develops and may turn into another security or economic formation that brings together oil neighbors.