Marwan Mohamed Abboud – researcher in international relations


Global reports on climate change suggest that the world is at a critical stage in human history as a result of climate changes caused by increased human activity in fossil energy investment, urbanization at the expense of agricultural land, increased carbon emissions, destruction of vegetation and forests, as well as population growth. Countries in transition and conflict with a low level of correct climate policies are more likely to experience these changes than others. including Iraq, which suffers from serious levels of climate change, Such as declining air quality, weak vegetation, declining rainfall, escalating drought and desertification, low river levels, and climate migration therefore, there is an urgent need for severe climate policies that include support and awareness campaigns supported by governmental and non-governmental sectors. These efforts seek to increase participation and effectiveness by members of the community to confront the climate problems afflicting Iraq today. Climate awareness and advocacy are powerful tools for providing the knowledge needed to change environmentally destructive behaviors, They also put significant pressure on official government bodies to adopt environmental policies that take into account the serious climate challenges facing Iraq by providing the necessary legislation and regulations to protect the environment. Overall, climate advocacy campaigns are crucial and important in achieving appropriate solutions to counter climate change in Iraq and contributing to building a sustainable future through pressure, awareness, and climate campaigns to mobilize efforts toward this serious issue. First: The climate challenges in Iraq.

A decade ago there was no idea of adapting to climate change in Iraq But today there are increasing debates indicating Iraq’s vulnerability to climate change after the environment in Iraq has been subjected to numerous pressures, These include increased population growth, the impact of three wars and the misuse of agricultural land resulting in deteriorating water quality and quality due to high soil salinity and air pollution, Conflicts, and unrest have also led to the absence of water agreements regulating the use of water resources for agriculture and livestock, and have exacerbated rural-urban migration. Moreover, Iraq suffers from air quality problems and rising temperatures due to climate changes and poor vegetation as a result of poor awareness and investment in green spaces.

Weak environmental policies in Iraq have had negative repercussions over the past three years, during which time Iraq has witnessed serious droughts threatening to lose up to 40% of its water flow. These weak policies have affected Iraq’s water diplomacy, as it has not been able to reach real agreements with upstream countries to cooperate in the management of water resources. Severe water shortages have also caused a decline in livestock in Iraq, where the agricultural and livestock sectors rely heavily on adequate water to meet their needs. Due to declining water availability, farmers and livestock breeders have had to adapt to harsh conditions and reduce their agricultural and pastoral activities, which has adversely affected agricultural production and livestock in the country. Moreover, ‎water quality in Iraq is a major obstacle for the local population to cope with climate change. Water quality problems are associated with increased pollutants projected into river waters, the transformation of rivers into landfills, especially industrial ones, and high salinity resulting from natural and other factors, namely, the failure of official measures to maintain the integrity of rivers.