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Research Papers

Introduction World politics today are going through a stage of upheaval. In many countries, parties that have ruled for years and even decades are being replaced by new parties that often push an alternative and, sometimes, anti-establishment agenda. Other times,...
Monuments and buildings are a physical connection to our past. They represent our history and through their public presence tell a story, which over time enshrines itself into our identity and our being.  As such, statues, monuments and heritage sites...
Once used by only a few countries around the world ,Sovereign Wealth Funds( SWF )are becoming an increasingly common feature of international finance†and state-led economic development .An increasing number of countries ,predominantly developing countries, who rely on the export of commodities such as...
Vision The entrenchment of corruption in Iraq’s state institutions - resulting from the legacy of the former regime and the absence of social justice, in addition to lack of transparency, nepotism, and sectarian quotas that have accompanied the lack...
Iraq’s higher education system can play an important role in fostering long-term economic development, peace and stability if efficient reform and funding policy are implemented for the university system. An effective university education could resolve Iraq’s economic, social, and...
France’s willingness to offer a degree of protection to those made most vulnerable whether through illness or social circumstances traces back long before the French Revolution. And though the state did not necessarily play a hand in harmonising or even...
Economic Velocity - How to sustain growth through economic flexibility and adaptability: the French model of state interventionism By Catherine Shakdam Given the  very nature of our global economy and the unescaping reality of our ‘entanglements’ - 2008 stock market crash...
The expression was coined by Jean Fourastier (1907-1990) in his book “Les Trente Glorieuses, or the invisible revolution from 1946 to 1975”, published in 1979. This expression refers to “the Revolution of the Three Glorious”, three days of revolt...
Introduction There are potentially three provinces of thought or general frameworks that can, if we invest in them well, provide us with effective solutions and real successes in the face of extremist behaviour, culture and practice. These provinces deal with...
Iraq’s massive needs for reconstruction, after more than 35 years of conflict,  cannot be met by current revenues from its considerable hydrocarbon resources alone, and thus it needs to resort to debt to augment funding this reconstruction. However, discussions within...

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