Laws regulate the functions of the state and determine the nature of the relationship between its institutions and society at large. They provide the basis for achieving justice and equality among individuals and define the mutual rights and obligations between the state, its citizens and residents. Laws protect the country’s assets from misuse, corruption and destruction, and prevent chaos and injustice. No country can exist without legal rules, which must be amended or repealed, as well as, passing new ones to address the challenges.
Numerous bills and proposals sit on the shelves of the Council of Representatives (the Parliament), the country’s legislative body, and which have yet to be enacted after having only received a first or second reading; either because of the absence of cross-party consensus among the members of parliament, members are dissatisfied with its provisions, or opposition to the executive branch stand on the law under debate.
The performance of the Iraqi parliament for the third round, specifically the period 2014-2018, which consisted of eight terms over four legislative sessions, resulted in the voting on 163 bills; 55 bills received their first reading; 74 bills received their second reading, and 15 draft laws was rejected1, as illustrated in figure (1).
Based on to the importance of these laws, this research paper sheds light on the draft bills and proposals which parliament failed to pass, including important bills aimed at preventing conflicts and crises between the governorates and central government; minimizing the executive and legislative authorities’ resort to the judiciary to settle their disputes concerning the use of their respective powers; promoting the country’s economy by adopting new ways to attract investors; developing infrastructure, and consolidating democracy.
This paper will also consider mechanisms which parliament can adopt to expedite the passage of laws.